Bitcoin based Remittances and Their Benefits to African Customers
Today I want to talk with you about bitcoin remittance providers. Why?
Although the leading cryptocurrency Bitcoin could be facing crackdowns in various regions in the world, it is experiencing a surge in the African remittance market. It isn’t affected by geographical variations since its transactions are stored in a blockchain database.
The main difference between cryptocurrencies and MasterCard or visa is that it isn’t regulated by the government and doesn’t require intermediaries, and the transactions rely on the internet; thus can take place at any part of the world.
Remittances have become a common way of life in most African countries since there is an increased number of immigrants in search of better wages. These workers will, at one point in their lives, want to transfer money to their families and friends back in their home countries. The situation leaves most people at the mercy of various financial institutions like banks and money transfer operators who charge a very high fee.
However, the cryptocurrency and blockchain technology offers high hopes in an attempt to transform the African remittance industry in favor of migrant workers and their families.
Today, Bitcoin operates as a medium of money transfer allowing users to evade the high charges by traditional money transfer services.
See also my article “The Ultimate Guide About Bitcoin Based Remittances for Africans“.Table of Contents1Bitcoin based Remittances and Their Benefits to African Customers2Comparison Between the Traditional and Bitcoin-based Remittances3Cryptocurrency’s Popularity in Africa4Reasons Behind Crypto Popularity in most African Countries5Bitcoin Remittance Providers for African Countries6Bitcoin remittance provider Paxful7Bitcoin remittance provider LocalBitcoins8Bitcoin remittance provider Coinmama9Bitcoin remittance provider BitPesa10Bitcoin remittance provider NairaEx11Sign up for my updates and latest insights:
12Bitcoin remittance provider Hellobit13Bitcoin remittance provider Remitano14Bitcoin remittance provider Geopay15Bitcoin remittance provider BTCGhana16Bitcoin remittance provider SureRemit17Bitcoin remittance provider Circle18Bitcoin remittance provider Crowdz19Bitcoin remittance provider Everex20Bitcoin remittance provider Metalpay21Bitcoin remittance provider Eversend22Conclusion about Bitcoin remittance providers
Comparison Between the Traditional and Bitcoin-based Remittances
In the ancient model, for example, when a USA based migrant worker needs to send money to his family in Africa, he visits a money transfer operator and hands over the cash. The transfer agent then starts to process the transaction at the current exchange rate and must charge for the services. Generally, the agent works as a third party conversant with the transfer software and services from a remittance software provider like a Western union.
Since he lacks the financial capabilities and relevant software system, he only gets a fraction of what the customer pays, and a considerable amount goes to the remittance provider company. Additionally, the agent needs to settle some subscription fees for system installation and maintenance. Thus, he must increase the overall cost to the end-user to meet his financial obligations. Besides, inexactness in the exchange rates also affects the client in the form of unfavorable rates.
On the other hand, the crypto remittance companies facilitate better cross border payments through a great internet connection and a simple software system compatible with various devices. Therefore, the money transfer agents can perform the transactions without additional installation, maintenance, or subscription costs. The blockchain technology then records the transaction details and anti-money laundering necessities in a database for security purposes.
The business operations in these companies involve estimating the amount of money required for particular remittances in a day. They then purchase an equivalent bitcoin and later sell the crypto in the fiat currency in the recipient nation.
Cryptocurrency’s Popularity in Africa
The soaring rise in mobile phone use in most African countries is helping entrepreneurs compete with other money transfer services with high remittance rates and fees. The crypto use has increased in Botswana, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. Additionally, cryptocurrency is gradually gaining ground in Uganda.
According to Google trend data, Lagos in Nigeria has the highest volume of online search for Bitcoin. It results from the frustrations of existing money transfer services, which bars the citizens from receiving money from their families overseas due to the countries fraud reputation. As a result, numerous innocent people are suffering and have to use alternative services with a high fee to receive financial help.
Recently, most of them have embraced cryptocurrencies as a perfect solution. Citizens of countries battling with high inflation rates are likely to opt for crypto as a substitute for their disastrous banking policies. Some of the countries with high inflation rates include Egypt, Ghana, Mozambique, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Malawi and are among the leading bitcoin economies in Africa.
Another significant factor spurring crypto growth in the continent is the inability and powerlessness of the governments to regulate Bitcoin. Fearing the collapse of the banking sector and misappropriation of funds by the African governments, most citizens seek crypto transactions. The South African Luno exchange was developed in 2013 and has attracted more than 1.5 million users worldwide.
Additionally, the Kenyan Bitcoin Remittance Provider Bitpesa facilitates transactions in African and international locations with high trading volumes contributed by the lucrativeness of the business.
Other Bitcoin Remittance Providers include Abra, operating in Morocco and Malawi, BitMari in Zimbabwe, and Geopay in South Africa.
Surprisingly, some governments have shifted into the virtual currency terrains with Tunisia’s government issuing the eDinnar digital currency.
As stated by the Hootsuite’s 2019 global digital yearbook, 10.7% of South Africans own crypto, with Nigeria at 7.78% and 7.3% for Ghana.
Reasons Behind Crypto Popularity in most African Countries
Most African citizens have started shifting their hopes to the use of crypto to escape numerous constraints faced with the traditional money transfer services, including cost, speed, and inconveniences.
The main benefit is the overall lower cost to the end customer, which allows migrant workers to send substantial amounts of money to their loved ones in their home countries at fairer prices. Also, there is a high unpredictability in the local currencies in most African countries; for instance, when South African rand became a volatile currency, most people switched to crypto to seek security.
The transaction is safe, and the companies don’t hold the virtual currency for more extended periods; thus, the operation takes a short time.
Some Africans have also lost trust in their local banking systems, for example, in Zimbabwe where they have experienced hyperinflation, Bitcoin is very popular, and at times demand surpasses supply. Due to the instability and shortages, most Zimbabwean citizens are flooding the crypto markets as they believe Bitcoin is more trustworthy.
Besides the financial inclusions and local currency volatility, there is a vast unbanked population in the continent since others in remote regions lack access to bank accounts.
Mobile money is a critical driver in reducing the number of unbanked individuals; thus, Africa is better prepared to shift into the crypto world than any other continent. Most citizens are already open to adopting crypto technology, and crypto exchanges that offer mobile functional apps will highly benefit.
Bitcoin Remittance Providers for African Countries
As crypto awareness is on a rapid rise in Africa, more cross border payments are likely to take place with the digital currencies. Most African migrant workers now put their hopes on bitcoin based remittances to send money to their families at home due to the lower fee, improved efficiency, and speed of the transaction.
A considerable number of crypto-fiat platforms have thus emerged to meet the high demand, and you need to choose the right one depending on location and preferences.
As Bitcoin Guide Africa we present you here the leading Bitcoin remittance providers in operation.
Bitcoin remittance provider Paxful
Paxful, a crypto remittance platform founded in 2015, with its headquarters in New York, has since recorded a consistent uptrend in its existence. It avails most African nationals a chance to send funds to their families back at home since it’s less volatile than most fiat currencies in some countries experiencing higher inflation. To start transactions, create an account and click “buy bitcoin,” then input preferred currency and method of payment, state, city, and the bank of your choice.
Search for offers, pick one, and then enter the amount of money you want to trade, you can now converse with your vender through live chat. Buyers will need to get the name, and the account number of a vendor, then go to the bank, deposit the money, and take a picture of the slip then send it back. Once the verification process is complete, escrow releases a bitcoin to complete the transaction.
Numerous people from all over the world can now transfer funds and trade bitcoins through the site daily. It provides several payment methods, including Visa, MasterCard, PayPal, MoneyGram, bank transfer, among many others.
It operates in various African countries including:
• South Africa
Bitcoin remittance provider LocalBitcoins
Jeremias Kangas and his brother Nikolaus formed the Helsinki-based platform in 2012, which allows direct trade between persons. It doesn’t provide for an overhead corporate; thus, the transaction process is swift and lean. LocalBitcoin has recorded an increase in the transaction volumes in the African countries for peer to peer transactions.
It provides a safe platform where its users can convert bitcoins into fiat and vice versa and also facilitates funds transfer between African countries. The platform connects buyers and sellers within a particular geographical area hence the name. It supports a wide range of money transfer options, including the Mpesa, which makes it popular among most African crypto investors.
It’s the most straightforward platform for beginners who wish to send money to overseas in the operating African country. You simply need to open a LocalBitcoins account and search for people selling bitcoin-core in your country, then make a bank transfer to the seller, and you will receive fiat cash into your desired local account. The system offers heightened security by using escrow mechanism to hold funds and only releases it when both parties come into an agreement. The platform is available in every African country where buyers and sellers are ready and willing to transact using digital currencies.
Read more about LocalBitcoins: LocalBitcoins in Africa Extensive Guide
Bitcoin remittance provider Coinmama
Founded in 2013, Coinmama is operated by New Bit Ventures Limited with its headquarters based in Israel. The platform provides brokering services for crypto, meaning that they sell you bitcoins directly as opposed to other platforms where you buy from other traders. It offers multiple options to purchase cryptocurrencies off the platform using credit cards, debit cards, Western Union money transfer, MasterCard, Visa, and cash payments.
For bitcoins transfer using Coinmama, create an account, and submit your documents for verifications to get approved for purchase. Once verified, you can assess various choices to purchase a certain amount or enter a custom amount. When you submit your wallet address for order processing, Coinmama’s wallet expedites payment to the required address.
For the credit card orders, it takes a few minutes to process, but SEPA bank transfers will take up to two days. Their website comes with a step by step guide on how to use their services and offers industry-leading purchase limits convenient for any beginner. It operates in most African countries, providing simple, fast, usually slightly expensive transfer services.
However, it isn’t available in the following countries:
• South Sudan
Click here to visit the website of Coinmama!
Bitcoin remittance provider BitPesa
Elizabeth Rossiello founded the company in 2013, based in Nairobi, whose initial focus was to facilitate crypto-cash transfer between the U.K and Kenyan citizens but has extended to several African countries. Today, the platform has gained popularity among importers and exporters across Africa, and it facilitates a smooth trading and remittance services. Users can send and receive cash in multiple African currencies to pay bills at home and other international currencies to pay overseas suppliers.
It operates by deploying APIs that work with various mobile payment platforms and a chain of bank networks. Organizations can send payment to their employees’ suppliers or distributors and also collect fees from African customers in local currencies. To transact, you need to establish a BitPesa account where you can sell or buy virtual currencies such as Bitcoins in the supported national currencies.
If you need to initiate a transaction, then you must deposit Bitcoins into your BitPesa account. Then, designate a Payee account where the money gets delivered at the current exchange rate. You then confirm your exchange transaction where the indicated amount of cryptocurrency is transferred from your account and deposited into a designated payee account. Most people use the platform to enjoy fast, straightforward, and more effortless remittances between international and Africa fiat currencies.
BitPesa operates in the following African countries:
• Democratic Republic of Congo
Click here to visit the website of BitPesa!
Bitcoin remittance provider NairaEx
It is a Nigerian based e-currency exchange platform founded in 2015, which allows users to sell and buy Bitcoin with Nigerian Naira at fairer rates. Today, it’s a central exchange service platform in the country which operates independently from a mobile payment processing solution. It facilitates cash payments while cutting a considerable amount of the deposit and withdrawal fee and thus allows users to convert crypto into cash via bank accounts freely.
The transactions with NairaEX are quite straightforward where the sender deposits local currency into the account, then provides a recipient bank detail, and the platform pays it into the beneficiary’s local bank account. Additionally, users can use bank transfers or deposits to buy bitcoin in Naira through the platform and then use the exchange wallets for payments and can quickly cash out their bitcoins into local currency.
It helps the clients pay school fees, living expenses, and salary or make remittances to suppliers. The platform aims at providing Bitcoin exchange services exclusively for Nigeria citizens, and that’s why the country’s currency terminology is part of the domain name. It aims at supporting the country’s numerous unbanked individuals by developing a payment request tool that allows users to accept virtual currency directly from a NairaEX account.
Click here to visit the website of NairaEx!
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Bitcoin remittance provider Hellobit
The San Francisco based company, founded in 2014, utilizes new digital currencies technology to send money home to families in emerging markets. It uses bitcoin as the primary medium for cross-border payments and cuts the service remittance fee up to 12 percent. Through the company’s app, users connect with other currency exchangers, be it individuals, businesses, or large organizations, and one can receive payments in their local currency.
Hellobits integrates the power of cellphone services into the remittance market to improve efficiency in the cross-border payments. It’s a three-party remittance service where the sender and exchanger need a smartphone while the recipient only needs a feature phone. The senders logs into the Hellobit account and transmits a bitcoin to the local exchanger. The platform then notifies the beneficiary via SMS code to confirm if they are the right recipient.
The recipient then receives a location of a place or a person nearby who will exchange the cryptocurrencies for local currency. It allows people to send money to their friends and relatives anywhere in the world, provided that the recipient can pick up cash from the trusted network of collaborative economy-based exchangers.
Click here to visit the website of Hellobit!
Bitcoin remittance provider Remitano
Remitano is a peer-to-peer platform that facilitates cryptocurrencies trading in a secure environment. On the platform, users can purchase Bitcoin in exchange for Fiat currencies at a small fee between themselves. A Seychelles based company, Babylon Solutions Limited owns it and has been in existence since 2015.
For any transaction, you need to create a Remitano account and then scroll down to find a buyer. Depending on the selected country, cryptocurrencies exchange rates, all buyers and sellers from the specific locations, are displayed. Enter the amount of crypto you want to sell, your payment account details, then click “Continue”, and the transaction will switch automatically waiting for the buyer to pay. The buyer will then deposit money in the required account and close the deal.
It has encrypted data storage, two-factor verification, and escrow trading to ensure that transactions and personal data are secure. Remitano mostly works with cash deposits and bank transfers but avails other options in different countries like Wechat and Alipay. Apart from the web platform, users also access it via mobile applications in Android and iOS powered devices, which facilitate push notifications.
Remitano Services are accessible in the following African countries:
• South Africa
Click here to visit the website of Remitano!
Bitcoin remittance provider Geopay
GeoPay is a blockchain remittance digital platform that facilitates the flow of remittances from different parts of the world into Africa. It is a South African based startup, founded in 2014. Users can easily send or receive money via Geopay tellers who are available in and out of South Africa. The platform has a great user experience that integrates local currency in the emerging markets; thus, making cross-border payments easy and fast.
One is required to download the application on iOS or Android enabled devices and has an option to add a debit card to send money via Geopay. Transactions go through a network of agents in the informal settings who facilitates settlements for the financially excluded individuals between countries. It enables people in the diaspora to seamlessly send money to their homeland and saves them on conversions and transfer fees. Additionally, users can use GeoPay to make merchants payments.
Click here to visit the website of Geopay!
Bitcoin remittance provider BTCGhana
BTC Ghana is a bitcoin remittance platform that facilitates the transfer of funds in a secure, fast, and affordable way for Ghanaians and Africans in the diaspora. It was founded in 2015 with its headquarters in Kumasi, Ghana. BTC Ghana incorporates the blockchain technology into the current mobile money service providers in Africa, to facilitate mobile settlements using bitcoins from developed countries to Ghana.
Users in Europe and the United States can make cryptocurrency purchases via established exchange platforms and send the payment to local remittance platforms such as MTN Mobile Money, AirtelMoney, and TigoCash. The money then gets transferred to recipients’ mobile money account, and users can pick their funds at local remittance outlets in Cedi without dealing with the complex Deposit and withdrawal methods.
Click here to visit the website of BTCGhana!
Bitcoin remittance provider SureRemit
SureRemit is a non-cash remittance platform that uses blockchain technology to assist immigrants to send money back home. It was founded in 2017 with its headquarters based in Lagos, Nigeria. It doesn’t charge transaction fees when paying for utility bills, groceries, or medical treatment. Users are at liberty to choose a specific local merchant from whom they can purchase digital vouchers and settle it instantly on the SureRemit platform.
By the use of blockchain, the platform can bypass the usual banking system and connect a consumer to a local merchant at a small transaction fee. To transact on SureRemit, download the app on either android or iOS powered gadget and present tokens to start making payments. It’s tied to a specific merchant and is irredeemable for cash; thus cannot be used for money laundering, fraud, or terrorist funding.
SureRemit is looking forward to growing its presence in Africa through its predecessors’ network, SureGift. It provides Remit tokens and has a vast network in various African countries like:
Click here to visit the website of SureRemit!
Bitcoin remittance provider Circle
The Circle is a global internet finance company that is built on blockchain technology and powered by Crypto assets. It was founded in 2013 by internet entrepreneurs Sean Neville, and Jeremy Allaire, and the headquarters are in Boston, Massachusetts. It has a mobile payment platform, the Circle Pay’s, that enables users to send, receive, or hold traditional currencies.
To send money using Circle pay, sign in to your account and navigate to the “send tab” then enter the amount you wish to transfer. Enter a Bitcoin address to choose where you want to send your funds and complete the payment. There are no deposit or withdrawal charges from bank accounts, insurance, storage, or cryptocurrencies transactions. Users can register for one account, denominated in their local currency or Bitcoin, for a maximum of two reports.
Click here to visit the website of Circle Pay!
Bitcoin remittance provider Crowdz
Crowdz is a blockchain platform that permits businesses to manage, digitalize, and optimize invoices. It was founded in 2014 by Payson, Severo, Steven Lee, and Hopkins, and the headquarters are in Sunnyvale, California. Crowdz uses a blockchain-based B2B money transfer service. It uses blockchain as its foundation to automate and speed up transactions, thereby eliminating the process of having to download and key in information into an accounting system.
After transmitting an invoice over the Crowdz invoice exchanges, the digitized data securely and instantly passes to the relevant parties such as employees and clients. Not only does it make work easier on invoicing, but it also facilitates faster payments, orders, and documents. All these related transactions instantly become interconnected; thus, making it less stressful.
The company focuses on small and medium-sized firms to boost their growth in the economy and has fully customized solutions for global ventures. It accelerates the cash conversion cycle by allowing digital payments to overseas suppliers with no international transfer fee. Crowdz support 24/7 invoice exchange in most countries with Barclay’s bank access.
Click here to visit the website of Crowdz!
Bitcoin remittance provider Everex
Everex is a blockchain financial technology firm that enables the application of virtual currency on a peer to peer payment platform to facilitate cross border transactions. It was founded in 2016, by Alexi Lane with the main office in Bangkok, Thailand. Everex acts as a link between cryptos and fiat currency by digitizing local currencies into fiat to come up with a costless, transparent, secure, and fast payments system.
Users can convert their money into digital crypto-cash via their local banks and use them on desktop wallets and mobile devices. The cryptocurrency, therefore, paves the way for Everex to provide micro-lending services without the volatility of traditional cryptos. Concerns between the capital transfer system and external blockchains are addressed by the Service-Oriented Architecture, which comprises of Blockchain package and Everex –System package.
Everex enables you to make a transfer, pay other people, and trade with any fiat currency anywhere in the world. The company has developed a global partnership with vendors that accept Everex transactions as payment methods, and users can also withdraw cash through ATMs, retailers, and local currencies exchanges globally. It has a short settling time with a lower transaction fee and global support in the world’s remittance markets. The platform accelerates access to financial services in underserved financial markets.
Click here to visit the website of Everex!
Bitcoin remittance provider Metalpay
Metalpay is a mobile blockchain-based remittance solution that allows clients to send money at better rates with a native reward currency. It was founded in 2016 in the United States in San Francisco by Marshall Hayner. Consumers can send USD, which is converted to bitcoins, to get a ‘METAL’ reward for every dollar they send or purchase. The awards can be held as an investment or converted to dollars and sent to another Metal Pay user.
A unique feature with Metalpay is that it has a combined cryptocurrency wallet with traditional financial accounts. To sign up, you need to link your bank account to the app and ensure you verify your identity and phone number. The settling takes a short period after verification. For every dollar you receive or sell, you earn MTL that is up to 5% the transaction value. The rewards are not restricted to sending money but also paying bills like rent or shopping.
Click here to visit the website of Metalpay!
Bitcoin remittance provider Eversend
It is a free banking alternative that avails money transfer services while capitalizing on the blockchain technology. It was founded in 2017 in the France capital, Paris, by Fast Track Malmo and Techstars investors. Their primary focus is on the African customers and those in diaspora all over the world. When using Eversend, you can transfer money to bank accounts and mobile devices.
It enables money transfer from Africa to the rest of the world, in-country money transfer, and intra-Africa crossborder areas. Through their e-wallet, they provide other financial services such as travel insurance, access to cryptocurrency, wealth management, and personal loans. Eversend delivers a complete digital remittance experience by facilitating international transactions without internet connectivity.
Users only need to link their debit card to Eversend accounts, loaded with different currencies to execute e-commerce settlements. It supports various currencies such as KES, RWF, UGX, GBP, USD, NGN, and EUR.
In Africa, it’s available in:
• South Africa
Click here to visit the website of Eversend!
Conclusion about Bitcoin remittance providers
Africans working abroad often send money to their families and friends in their home countries to pay for school fees, buy food, clothes, and meet daily expenses or to start a business.
The money is essential for many families in recipients’ countries to help cope with the continent’s unstable economies.
However, a large amount of this money is taken in transfer fees by expensive agents and financial institutions.
While the financial organizations have been charging Africans high fees for these services, bitcoin-backed fiat remittances have become a solace for most overseas citizens due to its speed, efficiency, and low price.
As more nations adopt virtual currency payment services, Bitcoin may eventually dominate the African remittance market.
The future of crypto-currency based remittances in Africa will depend on the growing rate of mobile phone use and the currency’s freedom from state regulations and banking controls.
Military Interventions Are Failing To Counter Extremist Insurgency
Military interventions have manifestly failed, time and time again, to be effective as regards counter insurgency. These interventions are adopted under the guise of some multilateral arrangements or with the disguised blessing or direct of the UNSC.
For context purposes, let’s start the discussion with the AU peacekeeping mission in Somalia, held under the blessings of an entire UNSC resolutions, Res 2472 that authorized AU member states to use military force to intervene and counter the Al Shebaab insurgency in 2007.
This military centric approach was to last, ostensibly for six months but has been renewed time and time again whilst the level of violence in Somalia and troop contributing countries has only but increased.
The recent Global Terrorism Index (2020) shows that Somalia is beset by instances of terrorism whilst numerous forays by Al Shebaab into Kenya (Westgate Shopping Mall and Garisa University Asymmetric terror attacks) proves that retributive violent incursions into troop contributing countries is a menace that can be seen to be a direct by-product of military centric approaches to regional crisis.
The events in the Niger Delta where France, probably per the doctrine of R2P has been militarily entangled highlights that this one size fits all approach to COIN is not effective as it is parroted to be
The Comminique released by SADC in Botswana also sought to address issues of troop contribution to Mozambique.
Therein lies the challenge. The triumvirate trio of Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola, under the auspices of regional integration and national sovereignty intervened, militarily, in the DRC (Operation Sovereign Legitimacy) in 1998.
The intervention was directly responsible for the collapse of the Zimbabwean economy (Black Friday Market Crash), descent into anarchy and chaos of the hybrid post-colonial state, escalation of violence in the Great Lakes region and a rise in fragile states within the greater equator zone.
The proliferated increase in arms of war resulted in the emergence of warlord (e.g. Bosco Ndagana, Wamba dia Wamba) and subsequent assassination of LD Kabila.
The SADC led intervention did not manage to bring peace and stability into the war ravaged country yet 18 years after Zimbabwe pulled out of the Congo at the behest of SADC, the country is part of an agenda and international conspiracy to intervene again. No lessons learnt.
Any involvement of foreign troops in a COIN initiative is guaranteed to be a cataclysmic failure. The rapture and related chaos to follow gives traction to this analogy.
Hyper nationalism is clear. People generally despise foreign military presence.
The Sunni Insurgency of 2003-2013 in Iraq gave us good lessons. Despite being told and made to believe that foreign troops under the guise of the Bush Doctrine are going to be seeking to restore democracy which was alleged to have been masterbated upon by Saddam Hussein, the people of Iraq said no to foreign occupation, rose up, took up arms and the resultant anarchy led to the emergency of Abu Musab Al Zarqawi, founder of modern day IS.
The by-product of military intervention is clear:
- More gangs
- More anarchy
- Less stability
- More chaos
- More deaths
- Regional escalation
I will not even mention Libya and that NATO led intervention.
For context, the insurgency in Cabo Delgado is clearly LOCALIZED with the direct risk of escalating into a Boko Haram kind of scenario once foreign troops are involved.
Definitely Mozambique needs help but that help must be in the form of capacity building and enhancement programs aimed at ensuring that the country has got institutions and systems capable of muting in the bud the escalating violence.
There are many ways of engaging in COIN. Clearly, there is a need to mix COIN approaches by the Mozambicans themselves, the thrust being to put more emphasis on civilian centric approaches and gelling it with law enforcement thrust.
Cost of cooperation must be made high meaning that decapitation measures of attrition ought to be successfully implemented whilst respecting human rights. This has been done before.
We saw this in Sri Lanka. The 26 year old Tamil Insurgency wad muted by a home grown COIN thrust as directed by the Rajakpaksa Model.
No foreign troops were involved. The death of Prabakaran signaled the end of the insurgency. This is what SADC ought to appreciate.
Reprisal attacks in many of these porous bordered SADC states will make economies collapse. Imagine the negative ramifications say to tourism of one tourist resort center is attacked.
A more pragmatic way of doing it outside of the usage of guns and tanks is the institutional/law enforcement thrust
Definitely, the SADC Communique represents a dedicated belief in the efficacy of multilateralism to resolve domestic challenges but that again, has got its limits.
To understand these limits and thence predict prognosis, the Asymmetric Warfare Equation shall be used:-
The asymmetric warfare equation is thus
AW=Asymmetric Threat (AT) + Asymmetric Operations (AO) + Cultural Asymmetry (CA) + Asymmetric Cost (AC)
AW= AT +AO + CA+AC
Are there any asymmetric operations currently underway in Moz? Yes!
- Diplomacy (EU etc.)
- Military (Wagner Group, Dyke et al)
- Economic sabotage (e.g. takeover of Mocimba de Pria port)
The last two aspects of the equation paint a gory picture as to cost of intervention.
Definitely, IPB (intelligence preparation of battlefield) already is making it clear that military centric COIN even per countries with strong defense budgets, shall be extreme.
Use Afghanistan and Boko Haram for there is definite similarities. As regards that, Zimbabwe does not have capacity, e.g. it needed SA engineers to help us rehabilitate broken infrastructure brought about by the asymmetric event, Idai.
What are the cultural issues per cultural asymmetry in the restive region of Cabo Delgado, Mozambique?
- Values (Islamic)
- Target population (demographics and structural issues indicate sympathy to the insurgency cause)
Is there an asymmetric threat in Mozambique? Yes
- Information warfare
- Disruptive threats (Idai)
- Unknown threats e.g. Climate Change induced
We are alien to Islamic values. It will quickly escalate into a religious conflict. Check Armenia vs Azerbaijan and related alliances that are emerging.
What are the likely costs to be incurred by any intervention (AC)
- Cost of action (Indonesian incursion into East Timor costed an equivalent of 50% of its GDP. Forced to quit. Same as the Rhodesians and also operation sovereign legitimacy by Zim in DRC)
- Cost of defense
Prognosis of intervention:
Our border with Mozambique (+/-1000) is too long and porous for guerilla warfare to be defeated.
Our capacity ravaged due to sanctions and amplified vices such as corruption. Per doctrine we are ok but anything post that dololo (nothing).
Chifamba’s Alleged Illegal Immigrant Status Takes a New Twist.
The Court was told by an investigator in the Department of Home Affairs that the 25 March 2020 dated stamp which was on the passport of Setheo Engineering’s Brighton Chifamba was in truth and fact, fraudulent.
However, former Acting Director General of the Department of Home Affairs, Mr T. Mavuso clarified the misunderstanding in a conversation with one of our correspondence today.
He pointed that contrary to the assertion made under oath by the investigator, the stamp of 25 March 2020 did not need to be endorsed as the date of re-entry fell within the 90 days maximum allowable exemption period for Zimbabweans visiting South Africa.
“The maximum period allowable for Zimbabweans to travel on a visa free basis was 90 days and if a person spends 10 days for example during the first visit, it means the person will have a credit of 80 days to visit SA without needing a visa and each time the person visits, no endorsement will be required.” He explained
Mr. E. Banda, Managing Director of law firm, Banda and Associates said: “I am not sure how the Magistrate presiding over the bail hearing is going to take it when he discovers that the Court could have been intentionally and deliberately lied to in order to induce it to make a ruling that is not in the interests of justice.”
“Based on the audio with Mr. Mavuso, it is clear that the Court was misled into believing that Mr Chifamba’s entry stamp was fraudulent and as such he was in the country illegally. After attending the bail hearing, I could not help as the question as to whether the misrepresentation made to Court was intentional or a consequence of ignorance on the part of the Home Affairs official,” said a member of the C2C initiative.
At the core of the Setheo saga is an allegation of unjust enrichment caused by purported inducement made to 2 dismissed City Power officials to fraudulently pay an amount of R66 million to Setheo with nothing to show for it
Contrary to this allegation, it is Setheo’s case in a pending civil matter against City Power that the cancellation of the contract between the two parties at the instigation of the former Mayor, Herman Mashaba, was ultra vires the law and no facts justified the allegations in the criminal matter.
The heads of arguments by the NPA and Chifamba’s attorney will be presented tomorrow and the Magistrate is expected to make a ruling thereafter on the bail application.
South Africa’s NPA 3 Year Long Setheo Investigation Ridiculous – Advocate Banda
In response to questions on the circumstances leading to the arrest of Brighton Chifamba, a foreman who worked for South Africa’s Setheo Engineering on the Eldorado substation, the NPA’s Ms. Mjonondwane hinted on the imminence of more arrests as investigations are still being carried on a corruption case that has been ongoing for around three years.
The upgrading of the Eldorado substation was abruptly stopped as ordered by South Africa’s former Johannesburg Mayor, Herman Mashaba, following a dispute relating to allegations that City Power had paid R66 million to a contractor, Setheo in 2016 while no work was done.
Two Setheo directors and two City Power employees were then arrested and after 12 appearances in Court, the charges were provisionally withdrawn.
“It is the decision made in 2016 to arrest suspects without any prima facie grounds and evidently prior to the completion of investigations by the Hawks that must be interrogated here. One would have expected that after three years, investigations would have long been finalized. For the NPA to suggest that investigations are still ongoing is ludicrous,” said Mr. Banda, an attorney who is closely following the case.
In an article titled “Who Is Who and What Is What In The Brighton Chifamba, City of Joburg, Setheo and City Power Case?” written by Brian Kazungu, an editor of an online publication, iniAfrica.com, he said that the NPA was yet to respond on clarity sought on the matter since the spokesperson was waiting for a go ahead on draft responses.
Iniafrica.com reported Mrs Phindi Mjonondwane, the NPA Spokesperon to have said “I saw your email, I am still waiting for a CCU to respond and check if my draft response is correct because what you are asking is evidential material and the matter is subjudicae, so they are just checking my response and if I am in order, we will be able to respond as soon as possible”.
The upgrading of Chifamba’s title in relation to the Eldorado Park project has been questioned because it has been confirmed that his role was that of foreman with no direct reporting links to the targeted Setheo directors.
The NPA is also reported to be pinning its hopes on the pending bail hearing of Chifamba based on an allegation that Chifamba was at all along an illegal immigrant.
Chifamba who is said to have voluntarily presented himself to the police at Palm Ridge on 12 October 2020 has been confirmed to have been on a valid 90 day temporary visa whose expiry was due during the Covid period.
The Department of Home Affairs whose official testified at the bail hearing argued that the entry visa in Chifamba’s passport on 25 March 2020 was fraudulent in that it was endorsed as was the case in relation to the stamp of 6 March 2020.
Chifamba’s lawyer however asserted that the visa was legitimate and no endorsement was necessary as his 6 March stamp was still valid and in any event the 25 March entry was within the maximum exemption period of 90 days per year granted to Zimbabweans.
A close relative to Chifamba said that is pathetic that the NPA would attempt to cling to straws as a bait to force Brighton to be a state witness on a case that the NPA has failed to establish after three years of investigating whether fraud was in truth and fact committed.
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